Dyslexia at a Glance
13 Mar 2023
Sep 7, 2023
What is dyslexia ❓
Dyslexia is a learning difference (not disability) mainly affecting reading and writing skills. Many people consider dyslexia as being a difference only related to spelling or grammar but the effects are wider impacting phonological awareness, processing speed, verbal memory and working memory. Around 10% of the population has dyslexia.
Different types of dyslexia
There are different types of dyslexia.
👉🏽 Phonological dyslexia
People with this type of dyslexia often find it difficult to manipulate the sounds of language.
👉🏽 Rapid naming dyslexia
People with this type of dyslexia may experience slower or more difficult retrieval of numbers, letters, and colours.
👉🏽 Double deficit dyslexia
This refers to people who have both phonological and rapid naming dyslexia.
👉🏽 Surface dyslexia
People with this type of dyslexia typically find it hard to read words which are spelt differently compared to how they sound (i.e. understanding phonics but may find it hard to read the whole word and attach meaning to it if it is spelt differently than what it sounds).
👉🏽 Visual dyslexia
People with this type of dyslexia may find it hard to visually process words and numbers. This means people may see the letters moving on the page.
Causes of dyslexia 🧠
There is a common misconception that people, particularly those diagnosed as children, can outgrow dyslexia. However, this is not true, as dyslexia is a neurological difference that affects how the brain processes language, speech, and sounds. The brains of people with dyslexia work differently, so it is not possible to simply outgrow it.
Researchers are not sure about the exact causes of dyslexia but it is observed to run in families which suggests a genetic link. Brain injury can also cause acquired dyslexia later in life, with different symptoms determined by where the injury has occurred.
👀 Spatial reasoning: Studies have shown that people with dyslexia have good visuospatial skills, often above that of neurotypical people. 🕵️♂️ Problem solving: The different processing and thinking styles that people with dyslexia have often combine to create strong problem solving skills. 🎨 Creativity: People with dyslexia often think creatively and come up with unique solutions to problems. 🗣 Communication: Many people with dyslexia are attentive, engaged communicators and good storytellers. ⚖ Reasoning: People with dyslexia often can identify and understand patterns easily, and then assess the information logically. 🌈 Imaginations: Many people with dyslexia have strong imaginations and can vividly ‘see’ pictures in their heads.
➡️ Difficulty in spelling and using grammar accurately: People with dyslexia might have difficulty with spelling and grammar. ➡️ Mispronouncing words: Pronouncing words, especially if they have unusual spelling or don’t follow the standard rules, can be difficult for people with dyslexia. ➡️ Weaker working memory: Working memory can be impacted by dyslexia, regardless of intelligence. ➡️ Spending a significantly longer time to complete tasks involving reading or writing due to different processing styles.